Španělský kardinál Zeferino Gonzáles y Díaz Tuñon OP (1831–1894) a evoluční vznik člověka

  • Ctirad V. Pospíšil
Keywords: Evolution, Origin of a man, Darwinism, Theology of creation, History of theology, Exegesis, Old Testament, Book of Genesis


This study presents the life and works of the Spanish Catholic philosopher
and cardinal Zeferino Gonzalez (183–1894), who is very little known in the
Czech environment. The focus of this study is an analysis of the La Biblia y la Ciencia
published in 1891, in which the author – as a high church official – expressed
his support for the acceptability of Mivart’s thesis. Which one he modified by
claiming that the body of an animal prepared by evolution became fully human in
the moment of unification with a rational soul. In this work, the Spanish Cardinal
responded to Draper’s book on the Discrepancy Between Science and Religion. His
approach to contemporary natural science, paleontology and paleoanthropology
was quite honest critical. Once these sciences provided conclusive results that contradicted
to the traditional exegesis of the biblical text, in particular on the basis
of the texts of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas, cardinal has been able to
modify the interpretation of these texts in such a way that there is no contradiction
between the faith and the results of human reason. Finally, it must be underlined
that González’s work has allowed us to identify three other French pioneers of
accepting evolutionary origin – creation of man by Christian thinking.